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Mitochondria are the energy factories that ordinarily generate most of the energy in nucleated (eukaryotic) cells. Bacteria have neither nuclei nor mitochondria, but textbooks say that all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria or some degenerate form of them. Now hiding in the low oxygen environment of a pet chinchilla’s gut, scientists have found a unicellular protist that doesn’t. (A protist is a eukaryotic microorganism; neither a plant, animal, or fungus, a protist can be unicellular or colonial.) Named Monocercomonoides, this unusual microorganism doesn’t have the slightest trace of mitochondria. How does it survive? And does its existence lend support to evolutionary notions about the origin of the eukaryotic cells that make up all multicellular organisms?To read the rest of this rather technical article, click on "Eukaryote Without Mitochondria Is Not a Product of Evolution".